CDC is looking into a possible increase in invasive group A strep (iGAS) infections among children in the United States. iGAS infections include necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, 2022
The vaccines have failed to boost the immune system, causing many deaths. So what is the point of advising people on additional vaccines? That is a blunt lie by the CDC which declares to Make sure their children are up to date with flu and chickenpox vaccines since getting these infections can increase the risk of getting an iGAS infection.
By CDC- Healthcare providers should
- Notify their local or state public health department as soon as possible about unusually aggressive iGAS infections among children or potential increases or clusters of iGAS infections
- Ask laboratories to hold GAS isolates or send them to the state public health laboratory for temporary storage
By CDC- Laboratorians should
- Complete the testing request form for GAS isolates to be tested at CDC’s Streptococcus Laboratory
(State public health laboratories interested in developing their own serotyping capacity might consider a PCR-based approach.
- Route through state public health laboratories all specimens that are being sent to CDC for further testing
Continue Reading: CDC (https://www.cdc.gov/groupastrep/igas-infections-investigation.html)
WHO’s Planned Warning: After Covid-19, Disease X could be a serious epidemic. Know all the detailsAs the world continues to tackle COVID-19, there are other pathogens that can cause pandemics. WHO said that it is updating a list of pathogens, including “Disease X“, that can cause future outbreaks.
Continue Reading: DNA (https://www.dnaindia.com/health/video-who-s-warning-after-covid-19-disease-x-could-be-a-serious-epidemic-know-all-the-details-3005229)
WHO on Group A streptococcal vaccine development
In light of the current lack of a clear strategy for the primary prevention of GAS infections, there is a place for a safe, effective, affordable, and practical GAS vaccine. Based on the epidemiology of GAS diseases in less developed countries, there is concern that the vaccine most advanced in development – a multivalent, type-specific vaccine – may not provide sufficient and long-lasting protection in countries with highly endemic GAS diseases.
The review advocates for an assessment of the efficacy GAS vaccines in less developed country settings, for oversight and coordination of GAS vaccine development activities, and that a vaccine is made available for the prevention of GAS diseases in less developed countries.(https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO_IVB_05.14)
According to ROCKEFELLER UNIVERSITY A Brief Introduction to the Streptococci
The genus Streptococcus is comprised of a wide variety of both pathogenic and non-pathogenic (commensal) gram-positive bacteria which are found to inhabit a wide range of hosts, including humans, horses, pigs, and cows. Within these hosts, streptococci are often found to colonize the mucosal surfaces of the mouth, nares, and pharynx. However, in certain circumstances, usually under disease conditions, they may also inhabit the skin, heart, or muscle tissue.
Pathogenic streptococci of man include S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae, and S. faecalis. Among the pathogenic hemolytic streptococci, S. pyogenes, or group A streptococcus, has been implicated as the etiologic agent of acute pharyngitis (“strep throat”), impetigo, rheumatic fever, scarlet fever, glomerulonephritis, invasive fasciitis and perhaps obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Pathogenic streptococci have also been classified into groups according to carbohydrate or capsular antigens associated with the cell wall. Group A streptococci may be further subdivided according to the variety of M protien expressed on the cell surface. M protein serotypes have also been found to strongly correlate with the disease caused by a particular strain of streptococci. Pathogenic streptococci also produce a variety of extracellular products which enhance their pathogenicity.
Vaccines and Surface Display of Proteins:
Capitalizing on the conservation of the anchoring process for surface proteins, we discovered that active polypeptides or proteins genetically fused to the common anchor region of the M protein could be used to deliver the active molecule to the surface of gram-positive bacteria (i.e., for vaccine purposes). A number of proteins from a wide range of sources (bacterial, viral, human, and parasites) have been engineered to be expressed and displayed on the surface of a human commensal bacterium (Streptococcus gordonii). When placed into the nasopharynx of mice, these recombinant bacteria remained there for up to 12 weeks. During that time the colonized mice produced antigen-specific serum IgG, salivary IgA and T-cell responses to the surface-expressed proteins. We anticipate that this live vaccine approach may be used for a variety of antigens to protect against invasion by disease organisms.
We also focus on the mechanisms by which gram-positive bacteria, particularly streptococci, cause disease and use this information in the development of methods to induce a protective mucosal immune response. The development of a cross-protective vaccine for group A streptococcal infection has been one of the major objectives of this laboratory for many years. The identification of a conserved region within the M protein of all of the >125 different serotypes of group A streptococci enabled us to design experiments to determine if a vaccine comprising this region would protect against infection by multiple serotypes of streptococci. Synthetic peptides based on the carboxyl half of the M6 protein linked to the B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) were shown by this laboratory to be effective in significantly reducing colonization upon intranasal challenge with a heterologous serotype in a mouse model. This finding suggests that local immunization with the conserved region can protect the mucosa and may be the first step in designing an anti-streptococcal vaccine.
Continue Reading: ROCKEFELLER UNIVERSITY (https://www2.rockefeller.edu/vaf/surfall.php)
Article on DNA: Most strep A infections are not serious and can be treated with Antibiotics