What Is HAARP?
The High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is the world’s most capable high-power, high frequency (HF) transmitter for study of the ionosphere. The principal instrument is the Ionospheric Research Instrument (IRI), a phased array of 180 HF crossed-dipole antennas spread across 33 acres and capable of radiating 3.6 megawatts into the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. Transmit frequencies are selectable in the range of 2.7 to 10 MHz, and since the antennas form a sophisticated phased array, the transmitted beam can take many shapes, can be scanned over a wide angular range and multiple beams can be formed. The facility uses 30 transmitter shelters, each with six pairs of 10 kilowatt transmitters, to achieve the 3.6 MW transmit power.
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HAARP ionosphere experimentation
What Is HAARP Used For?
The goal of the research at HAARP is to conduct fundamental study of the physical processes at work in the very highest portions of our atmosphere, called the thermosphere and ionosphere. This research falls into two categories (1) active, which requires the use of the Ionospheric Research Instrument and (2) passive, which only uses monitoring instruments.
The ionosphere starts at about 60 to 80 km altitude and extends up above 500 km altitude. There are free electrons and ions in the ionosphere that radio waves can interact with. HAARP radio waves heat the electrons and create small perturbations that are similar to the kinds of interactions that happen in nature. Natural phenomena are random and are often difficult to observe. With HAARP, scientists can control when and where the perturbations occur so they can measure their effects. In addition, they can repeat experiments to confirm the measurements really show what researchers think they do.
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Why Was HAARP Developed?
The High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program began in 1990 as a congressional initiative to expand our knowledge of the earth’s upper atmosphere and their effects on radio wave propagation. Particular emphasis was placed on being able to understand and use it to enhance communications and surveillance systems for both civilian and defense purposes.
Between 1990 and 2014, HAARP was a jointly managed program of the United States Air Force (USAF) and United States Navy. Its goal was to research the physical and electrical properties of the Earth’s ionosphere, which can affect our military and civilian communication and navigation systems.
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Who Owns HAARP?
For over 25 years, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Space Vehicles Directorate at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico, and the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) have collaborated on ionospheric research at HAARP. When USAF funding for research and development decreased, efforts were made to find a solution to preserve this one-of-a-kind national research resource.
In August 2015, the research equipment was transferred to UAF under an Education Partnership Agreement (EPA). To provide authority and management control to UAF, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was established. CRADAs are unique agreements that provide access to extensive government-funded resources that can be leveraged to yield powerful results. It is common practice for government agencies to transfer ownership of research equipment to universities for the continued support of science. Responsibility for the HAARP facilities and equipment formally transferred from the military to UAF on Aug. 11, 2015.
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How Does HAARP Work?
Scientists at HAARP use HF radio transmitters to heat small regions of the ionosphere and observe the effects (including ionospheric heating). For traditional space research using ground-based observations or experiments on sounding rockets, it can take an extremely long time (days, weeks, even years) to get the desired natural overhead conditions. Satellites can amass much larger databases but it is difficult to coordinate the satellite with the desired phenomena. With a facility like HAARP, it is possible to perform an experiment at will to create plasma structures and irregularities, use the ionosphere like an antenna to excite low-frequency waves, create weak luminous aurora-like glows and a variety of other experiments.
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Why Is HAARP in Gakona, Alaska?
The land on which HAARP is built was originally acquired by the USAF to construct an over-the-horizon backscatter radar. The end of the Cold War in 1991 and changing funding priorities led to the cancellation of the radar before construction began.
The USAF selected Gakona, Alaska, as the location for HAARP because it met the site selection criteria of (1) being within the auroral zone, (2) near a major highway for year round access, (3) away from densely settled areas, electrical noise and lights, (4) on relatively flat terrain, (5) of realistic and reasonable construction and operational costs, and (6) minimal environmental impacts.
When Was HAARP Built?
Construction on the HAARP Research Station began in 1993. The first functional facility was completed by the winter of 1994 with three passive, diagnostic instruments and an evaluation prototype HF transmitter consisting of 18 antenna elements with a net radiated power of 360 kW. By 1999, HAARP had been developed to an intermediate level capable of high-quality ionospheric research with the addition of several additional instruments to the diagnostic suite and an improved HF transmitter with 48 antenna elements and a net radiated power capability of 960 kW. Between 2003 and 2006, new instruments were added to the facility, including a UHF ionospheric radar and a telescopic dome for optical observations. Final buildout was completed in 2007, with the HF transmitter now consisting of 180 antenna elements having a net radiated power capability of 3,600 kW or 3.6 MW.
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September 14, 2022, by Ned Rozell, University of Alaska – Ned Rozell is a science writer with the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska Fairbanks.
In this wild place where dump truck drivers once tipped load after load of gravel onto the moss to make roads and building pads, scientists rolled open an iron gate one recent Saturday afternoon.
They invited conspiracy theorists, reality-TV hosts and salmon fishermen from Chistochina to the grounds of a mysterious antenna field. It’s a facility that some claim has caused caribou to walk backward. It has been rumored to activate earthquakes and to hold human souls in a sort of northern purgatory.
Scientists were a bit to blame for all the allegations of weirdness out here between the Copper and Gakona rivers. First off, they used an acronym to name it — HAARP, which stands for High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program.
That acronym added to the mystery of the field of antennas, which can heat a region of space far above our heads with radio waves powered by five powerful diesel generators, each the size of a fuel truck.
The science of studying a region we can’t see by perturbing it with enough electricity to power a small city — located in a place where wolves and bears pad along silently across its few gravel roads — is hard to wrap your head around.
A few people really do understand HAARP, though. They were standing on those smoothed piles of gravel that Saturday, when the foreboding metal gate clicked open.
My former boss, Sue Mitchell (now retired), initiated this “open house” a few years ago. She was there again in 2022, greeting people at the first table of the first building visitors walked into. I asked her why.
“So we could be as transparent and open as possible,” she said. “Throw open the gate, and show people what’s here.”
When she worked at the Geophysical Institute, Mitchell took the considerable hit of answering phone calls about the HAARP facility. She had no answers for people who were sure the antenna field was somehow controlling their minds.
“My hope has been, by showing people what really goes on, the facts will speak for themselves,” she said. “That doesn’t always work. People sometimes make decisions emotionally, not always based on the facts.”
It doesn’t help when the facts are so hard to understand. Here’s a try:
The antenna field at this 5,408-acre site, far from any Alaska town, was first a chunk of black-spruce forest and wetlands that U.S Air Force officials purchased from the Native corporation Ahtna in 1989. The idea was to use the location to build an over-the-horizon radar that would allow technicians to observe bombers or missiles that might be headed for America over the pole.
Due to the end of the Cold War, that radar was never built. Instead, Air Force workers installed a field of 18 antennas that broadcast high-frequency waves up to the ionosphere, the region of space that is home to the aurora.
The antenna field over the years grew to 180, each powered by two transmitters. A researcher has called it the world’s largest ham radio.
HAARP is a group of high-frequency radio transmitters (in the ham-radio band) powered by five diesel generators — four from tugboats and one from a locomotive. When activated, the transmitters send a focused beam of radio-wave energy into the ionosphere, 50-600 miles overhead.
Since it opened in 2003 with funding the late Sen. Ted Stevens helped secure, HAARP has hosted many scientists doing basic science on the auroral zone.
Others used it to do applied research for the military. In one study, researchers used the antenna array to heat a part of the ionosphere that in turn acted as a low frequency antenna that could send an ocean-penetrating signal to a submarine. That ping could tell a submarine captain to surface in order to receive conventional radio communications.
This place almost fell to bulldozers in 2012, when the Department of Defense wanted to get out from under the cost of running the facility — which includes about $250,000 each year just to heat the dozens of transmitter buildings in the winter.
About then, Bob McCoy, the director of the Geophysical Institute and a space physicist himself, lobbied for the institute to take over the site. Scientists rallied around him, as did the university president at the time.
At the same time, leaders of the National Research Council held a workshop about HAARP. They wrote a 70-page report on science that could be accomplished with the facility.
“Even though it’s esoteric and hard to understand, it’s the best,” McCoy said in 2015.
The university administration gave McCoy a loan to keep HAARP running. He gambled that he could pay it back by drumming up business from scientists. They would use the transmitters and pay for it with grants from funding agencies. That gamble is paying off, with a new 5-year grant from the National Science Foundation.
McCoy was there at the entrance to HAARP, too, answering questions from people like Michael Lewis of Anchorage.
Lewis, who wore a baseball hat he had covered with tin foil (apparently for fun), said he had always wanted to see the facility. McCoy posed for a photo with him.
Visitors were allowed all over the grounds of the facility during the open house. Swampy ground limited them to driving and walking the few miles of road and gravel pad, including the dormant transmitter array.
Scientists and engineers were stationed at strategic points to explain what the complicated equipment did when it was on. A few guests were ham-radio enthusiasts, but most seemed to be just curious people.
After the five-hour open house ended, the black gate shut behind the final car. Then, HAARP reverted to what it is most of the year: a silent pile of gravel sprouting with antennae. There, songbirds on their way south flitted through the spruce and on the ground beneath the antenna masts.
Source: KTOO, UAF
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